The New Kingdom in Ancient EgyptThe New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It was Egypt?s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.
The later part of this period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties (1292-1069 BC) is also known as the Ramesside period, after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses.
Radiocarbon dating suggests that the New Kingdom may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570-1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC.
Possibly as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom saw Egypt attempt to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt, and attained its greatest territorial extent. Similarly, in response to very successful 17th century attacks by the powerful Kingdom of Kush , the New Kingdom felt compelled to expand far south into Nubia and hold wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.Eighteenth Dynasty, Nineteenth Dynasty, Twentieth Dynasty.
Ancient Egypt Reaches the Peak of its PowerAncient Egypt was liberated from the Hyksos and then unified by Pharaoh Ahmose. He was honored by subsequent generations as the founder of a new line, the 18th Dynasty, and as the initiator of a glorious chapter in ancient Egyptian history.
During the ancient Egypt New Kingdom period, Egypt reached the peak of its power, wealth, and territory. The government was reorganized into a military state with an administration centralized in the hands of the pharaoh and his chief minister.
Through the intensive military campaigns of Pharaoh Thutmose III (1490-1436 B.C.), Palestine, Syria, and the northern Euphrates area in Mesopotamia were brought within the ancient Egypt New Kingdom. This territorial expansion involved Egypt in a complicated system of diplomacy, alliances, and treaties.
After Thutmose III established the empire, succeeding pharaohs of ancient Egypt frequently engaged in warfare to defend the state against the pressures of:
The 3rd Intermediate PeriodToward the end of the 20th Dynasty, Egyptian power declined at home and abroad. The ensuing period is the so-called 3rd Intermediate Period. Egypt was once more separated into its natural divisions of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
The pharaoh now ruled from his residence-city in the north, and Memphis remained the hallowed capital where the pharaoh was crowned and his jubilees celebrated. Upper Egypt was governed from Thebes.
During the 21st Dynasty, the pharaohs ruled from Tanis (San al Hajar al Qibliyah), while a virtually autonomous theocracy controlled Thebes. Egyptian control in Nubia and Ethiopia vanished.
The pharaohs of the 22nd and 23rd dynasties were mostly Libyans. Those of the brief 24th Dynasty were Egyptians of the Nile Delta, and those of the 25th were Nubians and Ethiopians.
The 25th dynasty's ventures into Palestine brought about an Assyrian intervention, resulting in the rejection of the Ethiopians and the reestablishment by the Assyrians of Egyptian rulers at Sais (Sa al Hajar), about eighty kilometers southeast of Alexandria on the Rosetta branch of the Nile.