The Late Period in Ancient PeriodThe Late Period of Ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great. It ran from 664 BC until 323 BC.
26th Dynasty; The Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, also known as the Saite Period, lasted from 672 BC to 525 BC. Canal construction from the Nile to the Red Sea began.
27th Dynasty; The First Achaemenid Period (525 BCE - 404 BCE), this period saw Egypt conquered by an expansive Achaemenid Empire under Cambyses.
28th-30th Dynasties; The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais, who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty ruled from Mendes, for the period from 398 BC to 380 BC. The Thirtieth Dynasty took their art style from the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. A series of three pharaohs ruled from 380 BC until their final defeat in 343 BC led to the re-occupation by the Persians.
31st Dynasty; There was a Second Achaemenid Period of the Thirty-First Dynasty (343 BC- 332 BC).
The Centralized State was MaintainedThroughout the ancient Egypt Late Period, the country made a largely successful effort to maintain an effectively centralized state, which, except for the two periods of Persian occupation (27th and 31st dynasties), was based on earlier indigenous models.
Late Period Egypt, however, displayed certain destabilizing features, such as the emergence of regionally based power centers. These contributed to the revolts against the Persian occupation, but also to the recurrent internal crises of the 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasties.
The 26th Dynasty was founded by Psammethichus I, who made Egypt a united and powerful kingdom. This dynasty, which ruled from 664 to 525 B.C., represented the last great age of pharaonic civilization. The dynasty ended when a Persian invasion force under Cambyses, the son of Cyrus the Great, dethroned the last pharaohs.
Ancient Egypt as a Persian ProvinceCambyses established himself as pharaoh and appears to have made some attempts to identify his regime with the Egyptian religious hierarchy. Ancient Egypt became a Persian province serving chiefly as a source of revenue for the far-flung Persian Empire. From Cambyses to Darius II in the years 525 to 404 B.C., the Persian emperors are counted as the 27th Dynasty.
Periodic ancient Egypt Late Period revolts, usually aided by Greek military forces, were unsuccessful until 404 B.C., when Egypt regained an uneasy independence under the short-lived, native 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasties.
Independence was lost again in 343 B.C., and Persian rule was oppressively reinstated and continued until 335 B.C., in what is sometimes called the 31st Dynasty, or The Second Persian occupation of Egypt.